Buschmann said members of the group, associated with the Reichsbürger movement, whose members do not recognize modern Germany, were preparing to seize state institutions.
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Law enforcement officers conducted about 130 searches at addresses associated with 52 suspects.
According to Bild, during the special operation, 25 people were detained, including a Russian citizen, named only as Vitalia B.
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The Reichsbürger movement, made up largely of far-right, nationalist and monarchist groups and said to be neo-Nazi in character, maintains that modern Germany is an illegitimate state, the 1919 Weimar constitution of Germany should be in effect, and that Germany should exist within its pre-Second World War borders.