The Indian Ocean archipelago of Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous province of Tanzania. It consists of the island of Zanzibar or Unjuga, Pemba as well as smaller neighbouring islands.
A former centre of the spice and slave trades, present-day Zanzibar is infused with African, Arab, European and Indian influences.
In 1964 members of the African majority overthrew the established minority Arab ruling elite. The leftist revolution was swift but bloody; as many as 17,000 people were killed.
A republic was established and the presidents of Zanzibar and Tanganyika, on the mainland, signed an act of union, forming the United Republic of Tanzania while giving semi-autonomy to Zanzibar.
Separatist sentiments have been gaining ground on the islands.
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Capital: Zanzibar city
Area: 2,462 sq km
Population: 1.8 million
Languages: Swahili, Arabic, English
Life expectancy: 65 years (men) 69 years (women)
President: Hussein Ali Mwinyi
Hussein Ali Mwinyi, from the long-term ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi party, has been Zanzibar's president since winning the October 2020 elections.
A former defence minster, he campaigned on an anti-corruption ticket and since winning office, almost 300 corruption cases have been prosecuted by the Zanzibar Anti-corruption and Economic Crimes Authority, or ZAECA.
Zanzibar has its own cabinet, known as the Revolutionary Council, and a 50-seat house of representatives. Elections, by popular vote, are held every five years.
The media in Zanzibar come under a different set of regulations to their counterparts in mainland Tanzania.
Reporting on the state-owned Zanzibar Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC) tends to be pro-government. There are around 20 privately-owned radio stations and a handful of private TV stations.
The government publishes the only daily newspaper and most readers rely on newspapers from the mainland.
The BBC broadcasts on FM in Zanzibar (94.1) and Pemba (93.5).
Zanzibar Leo (Zanzibar Today) - state-run daily
Zanzibar Wiki Hii (Zanzibar This Week) - private, weekly
TV Zanzibar - state-run
ZBC Radio - state-run, also operates Spice FM
See timeline in BBC Tanzania country profile