When the pandemic's lockdowns and supply chain interruptions made a nasty dent in the American economy, Congress went to work passing a series of relief plans, including stimulus checks that put money directly back into Americans' bank accounts. Stimulus checks of (up to) $1,200 to eligible adults went out in April 2020, and a second round of up to $600 came out between December 2020 and January 2021. President Biden then passed the American Rescue Plan, providing yet another $1,400.
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While occasional stimulus money won't solve most people's economic woes - they tend to make the biggest difference to people with less than $500 in their checking account, U.C. Davis found - they do stimulate the economy.