By Amanda Becker
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Congressional Republicans are pushing forward with proposals to modify the U.S. social safety net, despite warnings of political risk ahead of congressional elections in November.
There are roughly 80 welfare programs. Here are the largest ones and the ones that Republicans may target.
Federal and state governments jointly fund Medicaid. The health insurance program for low-income, disabled, elderly and other individuals is administered by the states.
About 68 million people - about one in five Americans - are insured by Medicaid. The program costs about $553 billion in 2016. It is open-ended, meaning its cost can fluctuate if more individuals qualify for Medicaid coverage.
As a candidate, Republican President Donald Trump promised not to cut spending for Medicaid, the Medicare health insurance program for the elderly, or the Social Security retirement program. But a White House budget blueprint released in May proposed slashing more than $600 billion from Medicaid's budget over a decade.
The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) offers health insurance for 8.9 million children in lower-income families. It is run jointly by the federal and state governments.
Congress allowed CHIP funding to expire at the end of September 2017. States warned that they could be forced to shut down their programs or freeze enrollment.
Under a deal to keep the government open through Jan. 19, Congress approved $3 billion for in CHIP funding through March, when it will need another congressional reauthorization.
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program (TANF) provides federal block grants to states for programs to help needy families. TANF grants in 2017 aided 1.1 million families. The program has an annual budget of about $16.5 billion, which Trump proposed trimming by 10 percent in his May blueprint.
The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a refundable tax credit for low- and moderate-income taxpayers, particularly those with children. Roughly 28 million taxpayers claimed it in 2015. Republican tax legislation approved in December left the EITC largely unchanged.
CHILD TAX CREDIT
The Child Tax Credit is a partially refundable tax credit for taxpayers with children, which is phased out at higher income levels. The Republican tax legislation increased the credit to $2,000 from $1,000, setting the refundable portion at $1,400 for those with earned income of $2,500 or more.
The bill made the credit available to higher-income families. The credit now phases out as income surpasses $400,000 for married couples filing joint tax returns. Children must have a Social Security number for their parents to claim the credit.
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is better known as food stamps. It helped nearly 44 million Americans in 2016, with an annual budget of about $71 billion.
Trump's budget proposed cutting more than $192 billion from SNAP over a decade. The Agriculture Department said recently it will give states greater control over SNAP, potentially opening the door to drug testing or stricter work requirements.
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides federal block grants to states for supplemental nutrition and nutrition education for infants, young children and pregnant and post-partum women. More than half of all U.S.-born infants get WIC benefits.
WIC provided about $6.5 billion in assistance in the 2017 fiscal year. About 7.7 million individuals received WIC benefits per month in 2016. Trump proposed cutting $200 million from WIC's 2018 budget. House Republicans suggested a similar figure.
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) provides income benefits to disabled people unable to work who have paid past payroll taxes, which fund the program. SSDI benefits can be temporary or permanent. They are based on past earnings and do not run out so long as the person is disabled and cannot work.
About $143 billion in SSDI benefits were paid in 2016 to 10.2 million people. Trump's budget proposed reducing the time frame for which recipients can obtain retroactive benefits and cutting $64 billion from the program over the next decade.
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) provides need-based assistance to disabled or elderly people with little income and few assets, including severely disabled children.
Like SSDI, it is administered by the Social Security Administration. Unlike SSDI, it is not paid for with Social Security payroll taxes, but from general Treasury dollars. SSI will pay an estimated $51.6 billion in benefits to more than 8 million people in the 2018 fiscal year.
Trump and House Republicans have proposed reducing disabled children's SSI benefits on a sliding scale if another member of their family also receives SSI.
(Editing by Kevin Drawbaugh and Jonathan Oatis)