As Iran's revolution turns 40, a consensus: Things must change




  • In World
  • 2019-02-11 18:21:08Z
  • By Christian Science Monitor

Recirculating more and more these days, as Iranians assess both the sweet and bitter fruit of 40 years of Islamic Revolution, is a video taken on the plane carrying Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in 1979.

He is about to end years of exile and touch down in Tehran.

Known by his followers as bot shekan, the "idol smasher," Mr. Khomeini was about to sweep away 2,500 years of monarchy in Iran - and a shah who was a staunch American, Israeli, and Western ally.

Recommended: In Iran, a hardline hunt for 'infiltrators' has political target, too

Khomeini aimed to install instead an Islamic Republic that promised justice, prosperity, and a popular "government of God," which would virulently oppose the United States and Israel.

Today it is clear that Utopia never arrived: the Islamic Republic reels from an ever-growing gap between rich and poor and wide social divisions. It is afflicted by corruption, an economy crippled by US sanctions, and vicious political infighting that has left many Iranians bereft of hope about their future - and believing that the revolution has failed to fulfill its promises.

But on that day four decades ago, as Khomeini was airborne, millions of Iranians awaited their savior, at the airport and in turmoil across the capital. Street fights would escalate between revolutionaries and shah loyalists until a "glorious victory" was declared on Feb. 11, 1979.

In the video the ayatollah, on the plane in a window seat, and wearing a stern look and black turban, is asked what his feelings are.

"Nothing," said Khomeini, whose revolution still rocks global politics after four decades. And then he repeated: "Nothing."

Today hundreds of thousands of Iranians braved snow and freezing rain to march across the country to mark the 40th anniversary of a revolution that raised expectations but has had bittersweet results. For many Iranians, the official triumphalism masks a moment of deep uncertainty, of disillusion and hopelessness that pervades their lives.

"After 40 years, the Islamic Republic has no similarity to its past," says a political analyst and Tehran resident who asked not to be named. "It is a corrupted government…. It has some cover of religion, but is not religious. No justice. [There is] nothing [achieved] about the goals that the revolution had - justice, equality, participation of all the people - nothing."

One result is a reckoning that looked as unlikely in 1979 as it looks inevitable today, about what steps Iran's leaders can take to reform and reinvigorate the revolution. Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, for example, last week set a four-month deadline to restructure the budget system. Yet corruption has never been systematically taken on, and Iran's parallel intelligence arms often work at odds with each other, trying to unmask "infiltrators" and spies.

A TURNING POINT

But much more is at stake, as Iranians watch their currency shrivel in value, and ask whether the return on a generation-long investment in revolution - including perennial anti-Americanism - has been worth the high cost.

"It's a turning point in the Islamic Republic, because it's the first time that the majority of people don't like them," says the analyst, citing economic protests that last year hit small towns and villages, where regime support has long been a given. "The Islamic Republic was not a likeable government all the time, but it was tolerable and something we could bargain with. It brought stability, and we voted for them - all participation gave them a guarantee to stay and have stability, and they could say, 'We have the people's support.'"

"But now they don't have it, and they do understand that," says the analyst. "It's quite a danger for the Islamic Republic, such a gap [with] people, between state and society."

Still, the annual celebration has barely changed, and today - as in the past - attracted Iranians from across the social spectrum, including a number of Westernized youth among the legions of more conservative and religious devotees. Anti-US and anti-Israel posters were held aloft, and flags were torched. Martyrs of the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s were venerated, and devotees with loudspeakers led chants of "Death to America!"

At the 29th anniversary, a Monitor reporter watched an anti-American effigy contest, in which grim depictions of Uncle Sam vied to win a gold coin prize. And at the 35th birthday party, children took part in building waist-high toy Styrofoam centrifuges, used to enrich uranium, in a competition dubbed: "Nuclear scientists of the next generation."

Yet now the Khomeini "nothing" video is being recirculated by regime opponents to suggest that Iran's most famous personality of the last century - and the revolution he fomented - cared little for the welfare of Iran's people.

"If we had any wisdom, we should have understood from that very 'nothing' answer what was lying ahead for us," one critic tweeted. "Alas, we were deaf and blind."

Indeed, the Revolution raised unrealistic expectations. Khomeini himself, speaking shortly after his plane touched down on Feb. 1, 1979, told Iranians that "in addition to providing you a rich, satisfying life" - complete with a new home, free utilities, and free bus rides, he said - "we will exalt your souls."

But such spiritual purity appears to be a rare commodity, nowadays. Instead, this year most senior officials - aware that the periodic economic protests in 2018 were more widespread than ever, and often targeted the leadership - tempered their enthusiasm.

Amid reports of shortages, price rises, and rationing of red meat, for instance, President Hassan Rouhani in recent days said Iran is "facing the biggest pressure and economic sanctions in the past 40 years." He asked Iranians not to blame his "dutiful" government.

THE COST OF CORRUPTION

But many blame chronic incompetence and mismanagement, and have done so on this day for years.

"Happy? Are you kidding me? Of course not," says Amir, a 30-something driver for Tehran's "Snap" online taxi service. Five years ago he had his own small business renting luxury cars for ceremonies and weddings.

"The worst thing about this revolution has been the lack of the rule of law. Officials circumvent their own laws, and this has gone down to all levels of the public," he says.

His business "turned upside down," and he now struggles to make ends meet, he adds: "You don't have any economic security because of the corruption. I have no future."

That problem echoes widely, and not just on the streets.

"Our politicians are problem-creators rather than problem-solvers," said conservative analyst Amir Mohebian, in a late-January interview with the Iranian newspaper Arman. "The government should keep in mind that protests from the lower class have every potential to turn radical."

Despite such views, Mr. Khamenei sought to reinforce the pillars of the revolution in a speech Friday, saying the nation's "massive presence" on the streets "scares and breaks the enemy [as] an embodiment of national resolve and unity."

"Death to the USA!" chants did not mean an end to the American nation, he clarified, but death to its rulers. He named President Trump and others.

Yet, according to reformist analyst Sadegh Zibakalam, that anti-imperialism campaign has "served as a poison and inflicted the biggest harm upon the Islamic Republic," since the original discourse of the revolution "was about freedom and democracy."

"If you force our radical and hard-line revolutionary people into not using the name 'America' in their speeches, they will have nothing to say," Mr. Zibakalam said in a public debate last December. "They have been hiding behind this for 40 years, refusing to address the fundamental issues."

'AT LEAST WE HAVE SECURITY'

Still, for some Iranians, the revolutionary glass remains half full.

"I'm happy because at least we have security," says Haj Esmaeel Malayeri, a rich, religious, and bearded businessman in his late 60s in west Tehran.

"It's not Utopia, I know. But take a look around. All our neighbors are in misery and instability," he says. "Let's be fair. This revolution has been facing pressure from almost all world powers, but it has managed to survive, and that's enough to make us feel happy."

But perceptions of inequality are exacting a high price.

"There is a sense of failure in many things, especially this huge gap between rich and poor," says a veteran observer in Tehran who asked not to be named. Indeed, social media posts showed some marchers today carrying signs with the slogans "No to embezzlement," and "No to aghazadehs," the derogatory term for the well-connected, rich and ostentatious offspring of the elite.

For most Iranians life has improved "very much" since 1979 in terms of education, health, roads, and communication, the observer says, but adds that a majority of ordinary Iranians sympathized with the 2018 protests, even if they did not participate.

"Maybe this is a lesson to learn that riots aren't the way out," he says. "But what is the way out? Nobody has the answer. So that adds to the feeling of frustration that nothing is getting better."

One solution may lie in accountability for corruption, suggests the reformist newspaper Ghanoon. An article last week called for an end to luxurious displays in front of fellow Iranians "who have no bread to eat."

"Isn't it better … to bring to justice all those institutions which are tasked with auditing and supervision and ask them why they were fast asleep this whole time?" asked the newspaper. "The monarchical lifestyle keeps parading itself before the eyes of our common people, in the form of fancy cars with arrogant drivers who break the hearts of the needy."

But politics still trumps the economy, in revolutionary Iran.

"There are certain people in our country who insist on extremism," the reformist lawmaker Mahmoud Sadeghi railed last week. "We have to be worried about what the hard-liners have in store for the future of our country."

Read this story at csmonitor.com

Become a part of the Monitor community

COMMENTS

More Related News

Iran
Iran's Rouhani calls on Mideast states to 'drive back Zionism'

Iran's President Hassan Rouhani called on Middle East states on Thursday to "drive back Zionism", in an Army Day tirade against the Islamic republic's archfoe Israel. Speaking flanked by top generals before troops began their annual march-past, Rouhani also sought to reassure the region that the weaponry on display was for defensive purposes and not a threat.

Iran says its armed forces are not a regional threat, calls for unity against U.S.
Iran says its armed forces are not a regional threat, calls for unity against U.S.

President Hassan Rouhani said on Thursday that Iranian armed forces were not a threat against any regional country, as Tehran held an Army Day military parade to unveil its latest military equipment amid rising tensions with the United States. In a ceremony in Tehran, broadcast live on state television, marching soldiers passed a podium where Rouhani and top military commanders were standing, and locally-designed and produced fighter jets took part for the first time in an air display. Iran also unveiled missiles, submarines, armored vehicles, radars and electronic warfare systems.

Iranian female boxer cancels return home after arrest warrant issued
Iranian female boxer cancels return home after arrest warrant issued
  • World
  • 2019-04-17 10:53:08Z

An arrest warrant was also issued against Mahyar Monshipour, the Iranian-born former boxing world champion who set up the bout in western France and was planning to travel back to Iran with Khadem this week, the representative, Clara Dallay, told Reuters. On Saturday, Khadem beat local boxer Anne Chauvin

Instagram accounts of Iran Guards commanders blocked
Instagram accounts of Iran Guards commanders blocked

The Instagram accounts of several Iranian Revolutionary Guards commanders have been blocked, the Tabnak news website reported Tuesday, with the photo-sharing website saying it was complying with US sanctions. The United States announced on April 8 that it has placed the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the ideological army of the Islamic republic, on their list of "foreign terrorist organisations". Tabnak, a site close to Iranian conservatives, said Instagram blocked the accounts of Major General Mohammad Ali Jafari, Major General Mohammad Bagheri and Major General Ghassem Soleimani.

Syria, Iran say US is waging
Syria, Iran say US is waging 'economic terrorism'

DAMASCUS, Syria (AP) - Syria and Iran said Tuesday the United States is waging "economic terrorism" against countries that have different opinions and should pursue its aims through diplomacy instead.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked with *

Cancel reply

Comments

Top News: World

facebook
Hit "Like"
Don't miss any important news
Thanks, you don't need to show me this anymore.